About local anaesthesia

Introduction

Local anesthesia (local anaesthesia) is a method of temporarily blocking nerve conduction in a certain area of the body to produce anesthesia, referred to as local anesthesia.

Compared with general anesthesia, it has no effect on mind, and it can also have a certain degree of postoperative analgesia. At the same time, it is easy to operate, safe, and has fewer complications. It has little impact on patients’ physiological functions and can block various bad nerves. reaction.

Classification

The use of drugs that block nerve conduction to confine the anesthesia to a certain part of the body is called local anesthesia. When the sensory nerve is blocked, local pain and sensation are inhibited or disappeared; when the motor nerve is blocked at the same time, the muscle movement is weakened or completely relaxed. This block is temporary and completely reversible.

Local anesthesia is simple and easy to implement, safe, can keep the patient awake, interferes little with physiological functions, and has fewer complications. It is suitable for small and medium-sized operations with superficial limitations. However, when used in large-scale and deep operations, the pain relief is often insufficient, and the muscle relaxation is not good. Basic anesthesia or auxiliary anesthesia must be used for patients who are not easy to cooperate, especially in children, so the scope of application is limited. Commonly used local anesthetics are esters such as procaine, tetracaine and amides such as lidocaine. In order to use local anesthesia safely and appropriately, one must be familiar with the pharmacology of local anesthetics, peripheral nerve anatomy, and the basic principles of local anesthesia.

Feature

Compared with general anesthesia, local anesthesia has unique advantages in some aspects. First of all, local anesthesia has no effect on consciousness; secondly, local anesthesia can also have a certain degree of postoperative analgesia; in addition, local anesthesia is easy to operate, safe, and has fewer complications, and has little effect on the physiological function of the patient, which can hinder It can cut off various adverse neurological reactions, reduce the stress response caused by surgical trauma and quick recovery.

However, local anesthesia and general anesthesia often complement each other clinically, and these two methods of anesthesia cannot be completely isolated. Instead, they should be regarded as part of a personalized anesthesia plan for specific patients. For children, mentally ill or unconscious patients, local anesthesia should not be used alone to complete the operation, and basic anesthesia or general anesthesia must be supplemented; local anesthesia can also be used as an auxiliary means of general anesthesia to enhance the anesthesia effect and reduce the amount of general anesthesia.


Post time: Apr-13-2021